Wednesday, 3 February 2016

Wordless Wednesday: Epic of a Century of Chinese Education

'Wordless Wednesday: Postcard' is recording all the postcards that I had bought from time to time for exchange purpose.

This postcard series divided the epic struggle of Chinese education in Malaysia into 8 different historical periods. The survival and development of the Chinese education is inseparable from the preseverance and resilience of the Chinese community. We look back at history so that we may know the future. We hope the story of Chinese education will continue to unfold in this nation. This postcard illustrated by Hung Wan Lu and designed by Lam Tsu Jiun and Mavis Chee.

1990-1999 Era of Renewal and Pluralism
In the 90s, there were still unfavorable provisions for mother tongue education in the Education Act 1996. However, adapting to the trend of the establishment of private higher education institutions, the Chinese community set up three community colleges, in hope to consolidate the local mother tongue education system.
1810s-1903 Era of Private Colleges
In the beginning of 19th century, there were already records of Chinese private schools in Malacca. In 1854, the founding of Chwee Eng School in Singapore signified the beginning of independent and formal public schools in Malaya.
1904-1919 Era of the Beginning of New Education
In 1904, Cheong Fatt Tze founded the first new format school in Malaya, Chung Hwa School, at Penang Chinese Town Hall. Together with the subsequent establishment of Confusion, Yuk Choy and Kwan Seng (Kuen Cheng), they were known as the first wave of new format school.
1920-1941 Era of Regulation and Anti-Regulation
In 1920s, the Registration of Schools Ordinance announced by the colonial government triggered the first wave of Chinese education movement. In the 30s, the Chinese community responded to the resistance aganist Japanese invasion by holding fundraisers in Chinese schools.
1942-1945 Era of Japanese Occupation
In 1941 the Pacific War erupted and Malaya was occupied by the Japanese. Schools were closed and many board members, teachers and students were arrested and killed, Campuses were vandalised and seized to be used as military camps or farms.
1946-1959 Era of Post-War Expansion
After the war despite "the State of Emergency", Chinese schools still expanded quickly. In 1956, the first Chinese university in South East Asia, Nanyang University, was established in Singapore, completing the Chinese education system in Malaya.
1960-1969 Era of Retreat Under Hornogenous Policy
In 1961, Lim Lian Geok was stripped of his citizenship. Most Chinese secondary schools were converted to SMJK and a mindset of homogeneity was on the rise. In 1967, the givernment announced that students without an official certificate were not permitted to study overseas, prompting the Chinse community to establish Merdeka University.
1970-1989 Era of Struggles for Rights
1973 saw the Renaissance of Chinese Independent High Schools. In the 80s, Merdeka University send the government after being denied the rights to set up the Univeristy. Chinese primary schools were faced with great pressure, yet they continued to defend the basic human rights of mother tongue education.

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